Citing Sources -- APA 7th ed.

Audiovisual Media

The author for audiovisual references is determined by media type:

  • Film: Director
  • TV series: Executive producer(s)
  • TV series episode: Writer and director of episode
  • Podcast: Host or executive producer
  • Podcast episode: Host of episode
  • Webinar: Instructor
  • Classical music album or song: Composer
  • Modern music album or song: Recording artist
  • Artwork: Artist
  • Online streaming video: Person or group who uploaded the video
  • Photograph: Photographer

Include the author's roll in parentheses after the author's name.

Describe the audiovisual work in square brackets after the title.

The publisher for audiovisual references is determined by media type:

  • Films, TV series, or podcasts: Production company
  • Music albums: Label
  • Artwork: Museum name and location
  • Streaming video: Name of steaming video site that hosts the video

For online streaming videos, the person or group who uploaded the video is the author, regardless of whether or not they created the work.

Film on DVD:
Soderbergh, S. (Director). (2000). Traffic [Film; DVD]. USA Home Entertainment.

Film online:
Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

Single episode from a television series:
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [TV series episode]. In
     D. Shore (Executive producer), House. Fox Broadcasting.

TED Talk:

Stevenson, B. (2012, March). We need to talk about injustice [Video]. TED   Conferences.     utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare

YouTube video:

CBS This Morning. (2019, August 12). Ibram X. Kendi on the solution for America's "metastatic" racism [Video].  YouTube.


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