Citing Sources -- APA 7th ed.


Article citations in your list of references generally use the following structure:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2009). Title of article: Subtitle of article. Name of journal, volume number(issue
     number), page numbers.

  1. The author(s) should be the first element. If no author is present, start with the article title.

  2. List author's last name, followed by a comma then initials for first and middle name. Do not spell out author's first or middle name.

  3. Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work

  4. For a journal article with twenty one authors or more, list the first twenty authors and then include an ellipsis (three periods, like this: ...)  Following the ellipsis, list the last author.

  5. The date is always the second element and is contained in parentheses.  Dates are written (Year, month, day) -- for example, (2009, August 27).

  6. Article titles are plain text. No quotes or italics
  7. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle for article titles
  8. Journal titles should be in italics
  9. Capitalize the first letter of each word in a periodical title except articles (a, an, the)
  10. If a journal has both a volume and an issue number, write the volume number followed by the issue number in parenthesis. There is no space between the volume number and the open parenthesis.  Volume numbers of periodicals should be in italics.

  11. Each element (author, date, title, etc.) of a citation is separated by a period and one space

Journal article with DOI, print or online:

Morio, H., & Buchholz, C. (2008). How anonymous are you online? Examining online social behaviors from
     a cross-cultural perspective.  AI & Society, 23(2), 297-307. doi:10.1007/


Journal, magazine, or newspaper article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version:
Jacobsen, W.C. & Forste, R. (2011). The Wired Generation: Academic and Social Outcomes of Electronic
     Media Use Among University StudentsCyberPsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 14(5).


Article without DOI, with a nondatabase URL:
Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39.


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