Book citations in your list of references generally use the following structure:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2009).  Title of book: Subtitle of book. Name of publisher.

  1. The author should be the first element. If no author is present, use the editor name and write (Ed.). after it. If there are multiple editors, write their names followed by (Eds.).  If no editor is present, start with book title.
  2. List author's last name, followed by a comma then initials for first and middle name. Do not spell out author's first or middle name. Put a space between each initial if the author has two or more of them.
  3. Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors or editors of a single work
  4. The date is always the second element and is contained in parentheses
  5. Book titles should be in italics
  6. Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle for titles of books or book chapters
  7. Each element (author, date, title, etc.) of a citation is separated by a period and one space


Book, one author without DOI, either a print version or from most academic research databases:

Stephenson, B. (2014). Just mercy : A story of justice and redemption. Spiegel & Grau.

Book, one author with DOI:

Belshaw, C. (2005). 10 good questions about life and death. Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Book, two or more authors without DOI, either print version or from most academic research databases:
Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and
     stagnation at the periphery
. Oxford University Press.

Book, no author and with no DOI:
World development report. (1989). Oxford University Press.

Book, with editor, without DOI, either print version or from most academic research databases:
Lewis, N.K., & Altros, R. (Eds.). (2013). Shy: An anthology. The University of Alberta Press.

Chapter in a book, with editor, without DOI, either print version or from most academic research databases:

Stopforth, S. (2013). Creepmouse manifesto. In N.K. Lewis, & R. Altros, (Eds.), Shy: An anthology (pp. 34-37). The University of Alberta Press.

  • When citing a chapter in a book, note the author of the chapter and year of publication first.  Then write In Editor of book (Ed.), Title of book (page numbers).  When listing the editor, list the first initial followed by the last name.  If the book has multiple editors, list each one and write (Eds.)  Finish the citation with the name of the publisher.

‚ÄčBook, with DOI and with the author as the publisher:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).                         

Book, republished in translation:

Paral, V. (2001). Lovers and murderers (C. Cravens, Trans.). Catbird Press. (Original work published in 1969).

Dissertation or Thesis, unpublished

Tindill, T. L. (2009). Intervention for the whole child: a teacher's guide to documentation [Unpublished master's thesis]. California State University, Chico. 

Dissertation or Thesis, available from a database

Umen, Z. (2020). Gender, institutions, and punishment: Examining the experiences of formerly incarcerated women [Doctoral dissertation, Duke University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.


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